Friday 9 November 2012

The Three Orders of the Saints in the Martyrology of Gorman

In his introduction to the 12th-century Irish calendar, the Martyrology of Gorman, editor and translator, Whitley Stokes, provided a helpful listing of the Irish saints who appear in the text, laid out according to the three orders of the saints:

The Irish saints before A.D. 666, the year of the great mortality, are divided by an author who wrote not later than A.D. 750, into three orders. The first was composed of S. Patrick and 350 other bishops, who had the same mass, Easter and tonsure. They were also ministered to by subintroductae, or, as the Irish called them, siair'quia supra petram Christum fundati, ventum tentationis non timebant.' This order included Britons, Franks, Scots (i.e. Irish) and 'Romans,' i.e., subjects of the Roman empire. It lasted till A.D. 543, or according to the Four Masters, 538. The second order appears to have been founded by the British Church after a more or less complete apostacy of the Irish. It was composed of few bishops and many presbyters, in number 300. They received a mass (liturgy?) from SS. David, Gildas, and Cadoc, but dissented in this respect (diversas missas celebrabant), and had different 'rules' or monastic regulations. They shunned the consortia and services of women, and excluded them from their monasteries. This order lasted till 599 or thereabouts. The third order was only a hundred in number, mostly presbyters. They were hermits, living on herbs and water, and despised private property (propria contemnebant). They had different rules, masses, tonsures and Easters. The last eight of them were swept away by the Yellow Plague in the year 666.

Of the saints celebrated by Gorman, the following (arranged alphabetically) belong to the first of these orders :

Ailbe, Sep. 12; two Ailills, Jan. 13, July 1; Auxilius or Usaille, Feb. 7; Benen, Nov. 9; Beo-aed, Mar. 8; Bron, June 8; Buite mac Bronaig, Dec. 7; two Cairnechs, March 28, May 16; Cianan, Nov. 24; Conlaed, May 3; Cormac, Feb, 17; Enda of Aran, March 21; Erc, Nov. 2; Fortchern, Oct. 11; Iarlaithe of Armagh, Feb. 11; Ibar, Ap. 23; Laeban, June 1; Lomman of Ath Truim, Oct. 11; Mac caille, Ap. 25; Mac cairthinn, March 24; Mel, Feb. 6; Mocta, March 24, Aug. 19; Sechnall, Nov. 27; Sen-Phatric, Aug. 24 ; Tassach, Ap. 14.

The following belong to the second order :

Aed mac Bricc, May 4; one of the Barrfinds ; Becc mac De, Oct. 12 ; mo Bi clarenech (Berchan), Oct. 12; Boethin, June 9; Brenainn of Birr, Nov. 29; Brenainn of Clonfert, May 16; Cainnech, Oct. 11; Cairlan, March 24; Cathub, Ap. 6 ; Ciaran mac in tsair, Sep. 9; Coeman, June 12; Coemgin, June 3; Colman mac Lenin, Nov. 24; Colum cille, June 29; Colum mac Cremthainn, Dec. 13; Comgall, May 10; one of the Commans, May 10; Conandil, March 1; Cormac hua Liathain, June 21; Daig, son of Cairell, Aug. 18; Enda, son of Nuadan, Sep. 18; Fergus, March 30; Findian of Clonard, Dec. 12; Findian of Mag bile, Feb. 11 and Sep. 10; Fintan of Dun Blesci, Jan. 3; Finntan of Clonenagh, Feb. 17; mo Laisse (Lasrian) of Daminis, Sep. 12; Lasren of Mena-drochet, Sep. 16; Mac-nise, June 13; mo Lua of Clonfert, Aug. 4; mo Luoc, June 25; Moenenn, March 1; Natchoime, May 1; Nessan, July 24; Ninnid Laebderc, Jan. 16; Odran, Oct. 26; Senach, Aug. 21; Ruadan, Ap. 15; Sinchell the Elder, March 26; Sinell of Cloen-inis, Nov. 12; Tigernach, Ap. 4.

To the third order belong : Aedlug, Feb. 26, Aileran, Dec. 29, Beogna, Aug. 2, Berach, Ap. 21, Boethin, June 9, Coeman Brecc, Sep. 14, Coemgen, June 3, mo Choemoc, Mar. 13, Colman mac Duach, Feb. 3, Colman maccu Telduib, Feb. 8, Colman Ela, Sep. 26, Colman Stellain, May 26, Columbanus, Nov. 21, Critan, May 17, Cronan, Nov. 11, Cronan Becc, Jan. 7, Cronan of Mag bile, Aug. 7, mo Chua of Tech mo Chua, Dec. 24, mo Chua of Balla, Mar. 30, Cuanna, Feb. 4, mo Chutu, May 14, Cummine, bishop of Noendruim, July 1, Cummine fota, Nov. 12, Dagan, Sep. 13, Daniel, Feb. 18, Dimma Dub, Jan. 6, Domongin, Ap. 29, Eochaid, Ap. 17, Fechin, Feb. 14, Finan, Jan. 8, Finntain (or Munnu), Oct. 21, Gobban, March 17, Lachtain, March 19, Laidgenn, Jan. 12, Lassren (mo Laisse), Ap. 18, mo Liba, Jan. 8, Liber, March 8, Lomman of Loch Uair, Feb. 7, Maedoc of Ferns, Jan. 31, Mac Lasre, abbot of Bennchor, May 16, Mac Lasre, abbot of Armagh, Sep. 12, mo Lua, Aug. 4, Manchan, Jan. 24, Muirgen, Jan. 27, Nem maccu Birn, June 14, Ossein, May 1, Ronan, Nov. 18, Saran, Jan. 20, Segin, Sep. 10, Senach Garb, Sept. 10, Sillan, abbot of Bennchor, Feb. 28, Sillan, bishop of Daminis, May 17, Sillan of Mag bile, Aug. 25, Srafan, May 23, Suibne, Jan, 11, Tommein, Jan. 10, and Ultan, Sep. 4.

Whitley Stokes, ed. and trans. The Martyrology of Gorman (London, 1895), xlvii-xlviii.

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